Nutrition Facts, Health Benefits and Production Technology of Bitter gourd    

Eating vegetables not only keeps our body healthy but also fulfills our nutritional needs. There should be a variety of delicious vegetables in the daily diet. Bitter gourd is a vegetable which is very beneficial for health. These vegetables take relatively less time to cook. Many people dislike eating because of its bitter taste. However, this vegetable is full of nutrients. Regular consumption of bitter gourd can get rid of various diseases. It also contains a lot of nutrients that are essential for the body.

Nutrient contains :

100 grams of edible bitter gourd contains –

  • 1.5-2.0 percent of carbs, 
  • 20-23 milligrams of calcium, 
  • 1.6-2.0 milligrams of iron and 
  • 6.96 milligrams of dietary C.

 Health benefits :

  • The other three components of coriander are polypeptide P, vicin, charantine which helps in controlling the blood sugar level of diabetic patients. The role of polypeptide P is much like that of insulin.


  • Researchers say that drinking the juice of the bitter gourd destroys the pancreatic cancer cells. Iron helps to make hemoglobin.


  • According to researchers at the University of Lewis in the United States, coriander juice is also capable of destroying breast cancer cells.
  • It keeps teeth and bones well. Controls blood pressure. Beta carotene is very useful for maintaining good eyesight and solving eye problems.
  • It is also very important to keep the skin and hair well. Helps to cure skin diseases. In addition, bitter gourd juice is deworming.
  • It also works for fever, seasonal pain, cold and cough. Bitter gourd is also very necessary in the case of diet.

Production technology :

Description of land and soil:

Bitter gourd grows well in warm and humid climates. Environmentally it is a hardy plant. It can be grown even in moderately dry weather, but excess rainfall causes damage to it. Can’t stand waterlogging. Excessive rainfall may disrupt pollination. Therefore, except for one or two months of winter, bitter gourd can be grown in Bangladesh at any time of the year. In winter the growth rate of the plant decreases. In order to get good yield, bitter gourd should be cultivated in a place where it gets sun all day and there is an adequate irrigation system. 

Land preparation:

Bitter gourd is cultivated in the Kharif season so for it is necessary to select a place where there is no possibility of water storage. In order to cultivate bitter gourd at home, one has to sow two or four seeds in a seedbed and make arrangements so that the plant can grow. However, for commercial cultivation, first the whole land has to be prepared by cultivating and ladder 4-5 times so that the roots can spread easily. If the land is large, the ditch has to be cut at a specified distance and divided into several parts in length. The width of the bed will be 1.0 m and there will be a 30 cm groove between the two beds. 

Special care:

To alleviate salinity, farmers make higher beds than usual and often use polythene or straw as mulching.

Seed rate:

6-7.5 and 3-3.5 kg seed per hectare is required for karla and uchcha respectively.

Distance of the plant :

Seedbed should be made at a distance of 1.0 m in a row and 1.5 m in a row for cultivating. 

Seedbed preparation, seed sowing and seedbed care:

Bitter gourd seeds can be sown directly in the seed bed. Seedlings of 15-20 days old can be produced in polybags (10-15 cm). 

Seedbed care

 1)  Necessary care of seedlings in the nursery should be ensured. Seed germination is a problem in winter. Therefore, in case of winter seedlings produced in the polybag should be covered with plastic every night till seed germination and kept open during the day.

 2)  The seedlings should be watered as required but care should be taken so that water does not fall on the seedlings. If the soil of the polybag is tied up, it should be broken.

3) The red pumpkin beetle, a type of red beetle, attacks the coral seedlings. It must take measures to suppress. This insect can be easily controlled by hand.

 4)  If the seedlings are 16-17 days old, they should be planted in a prepared hole in the field. In the seedling stage i.e. early stages of growth can sometimes be attacked by the red pumpkin beetle. It must take measures to suppress.

Easy germination of seeds:

The husk of bitter gourd seeds is a bit hard. Therefore, for easy germination, just soak in clean water for 15-20 hours or one percent potassium nitrate solution overnight and then sow in a polybag.

Fertilizer quantity and application method :

For 1 decimal land,  fertilizer should be as follows –

Cow Dung                       80 Kg 

TSP                                700 g

Urea                               700 g

MoP                               600 g

Gypsum                        400 g

Copper sulphate            50 g

Borax                               40 g

magnesium oxide          50 g

Crop collection and yield

After 45-45 days of seedling emergence, the seedlings begin to bear fruit. It takes about 2 months for bitter gourd .

Fruits are suitable for eating within 15-20 days of pollination.

Once the fruit harvesting starts, it continues for two months. When cultivated in an improved manner, the yield per hectare of bitter gourd is 8-10 tons (30-40 kg / per cent) and 20-25 tons (80-100 kg / per cent) respectively.


With proper care in time, 300-400 kg / ha (1.2-1.6 kg per cent) can be produced per hectare.

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