Origin / history, production Technology, Care of Major oilseed crops in Bangladesh
Origin / history, production Technology, Care of Sunflower
Origin of Sunflower:
The scientific name of the sunflower is Helianthus annuus. It belongs to the Asteraceae family. The wild sunflower is native to North America but commercial cultivation of the plant took place in Russia. But very soon the sunflower plant returned to North America as a cultivated crop. The development of the commercial sunflower plant to produce a number of good yields has been a multi-national effort spanning continents and thousands of years.
The sunflower was first grown as a food crop by indigenous North American tribes over 4,500 years ago. Native American tribes cultivated the sunflower from its original bushy, multi-headed type to produce a single-stemmed plant bearing a large flower but the yield was poor. The sunflower was cultivated in North America for about 4,000 years until it was discovered by European explorers in 1510. But for the next 200 years, European people overlooked the food and oil-bearing potential of sunflowers. It widespread across Western Europe as an ornamental or, to a lesser degree, medicinally as an anti-inflammatory.
Production technology of Sunflower:
Suitable land and soil:
Sunflower usually grows in all soils. However, loamy soil is most suitable.
So far 2 varieties have been invented by BARI. Namely (1) Kirani (DS-1) and Bari Surjomukhi-2.
Seed rate :
8-10 kg / ha.
Sowing time and sowing method:
Sunflower can be cultivated throughout the year. However, it can be cultivated in the month of Agrahayan (if it is cultivated from the middle of the season). It can be cultivated in the Kharif-1 season i.e. in the month of Jyestha (mid-April to mid-May). Sunflower seeds are sown in rows. Row to row spacing is 50 cm and plant to plant distance is 25 cm.
The following fertilizers should be used in sunflowers for good yield.
Fertilizer name Fertilizer quantity/hectare:
Urea 180-200 kg MOP 120-150 kg Gypsum 120-160 kg Zinc sulfate 8-10 kg Boric acid 10-12 kg Magnesium sulfate 80-100 kg
Fertilizer application method:
Half of the urea and all other fertilizers should be sprinkled on the land at the time of last cultivation and mixed with the soil. The remaining half of urea should be applied in 2 parts, the first part 20-25 days after seedling emergence and the second part 40-45 days after flowering (before flowering).
Irrigation and weed management:
In order to get a higher yield of sunflower crop, it is necessary to irrigate several times. The first irrigation should be given 30 days after sowing (before flowering), the second irrigation 50 days after sowing (during flowering), and the third irrigation 60 days after sowing (before seed germination). Sunflower land should always be kept weed-free. If weeds appear on the land, they should be removed.
They live in groups at the juvenile stage.
Ways to recognize insects:
Insects or scorpions are yellow in color and have thorns on their skin. Insects should be killed by collecting leaves from the plant along with the insects as soon as they are seen. If there is water mixed with kerosene in the irrigation canal, the worm falls into the water and dies. Diazinon-60 EC should be mixed at the rate of 2 ml per liter of water and sprayed in the afternoon.
Name of the disease:
Leaf scorching disease
The disease is spread with the help of Alternaria helianthi. At the beginning of the attack, the leaves have unevenly shaped spots of gray or dark brown color. These spots come together to form large spots and eventually, the whole leaf shines.
Propagation by seeds and wind.
Origin / history, production Technology, Care of Soybean
Origin of Soybean:
The study shows, Soybeans originated in Southeast Asia and were first domestically cultivated by Chinese farmers around 1100 BC. Soybeans were grown in Japan and other countries by the first century AD. Soybean seed from China was planted by a colonist in the British colony of Georgia in 1765. Soybeans increased in popularity among farmers who began to plant them as forage for their livestock during the 1870s. Soybean plants flourished in the hot, humid summer weather. By the turn of the century, the United States Department of Agriculture was conducting tests on soybeans and motivating farmers to plant them as animal feed. A famous American scientist George Washington Carver discovered that soybeans are a valuable source of protein and oil in 1904. He also realized the benefits of soybeans for increasing soil quality. It wasn’t until the 1940’s that soybean farming became really popular in America. China was the major supplier of soybean at that time. Gradually, I became widely cultivated as an oil crop across the world.
Production technology of Soybean :
Soybean can be cultivated in both Rabi and Kharif seasons in the soil and climate of this country. For soybean cultivation, sandy loam to loamy loam soils is very suitable. The land selected for cultivation in Kharif or monsoon season must be elevated and waterable. Cultivation can be done on medium to lowlands during Rabi season. Noakhali, Chandpur, Bhola, Laxmipur, Jessore, Rangpur, and Mymensingh regions are suitable for soybean cultivation.
For soybean cultivation depending on the type of soil, seeds should be sown by loosening the soil with 3-4 cultivations and laddering. After leveling the land with a ladder, if the plot is made in a convenient shape, then it is convenient to apply irrigation, drainage, and interim care.
In Bangladesh, soybean can be cultivated in Rabi and Kharif-2 seasons. The best time for sowing is from the beginning of Poush in Rabi season to the middle of Magh (mid-December to the end of January) and in Kharif-2 season from mid-Ashar to Bhadra (first of July to last of August).
Seed sowing by broadcasting requires 55 kg per hectare (22 kg per acre) and row sowing by dribbling requires 60 kg (28 kg per acre).
Soybean seeds are best sown in rows, but can also be sown by broadcasting. If it is sown in rows, the distance from row to row is 30 cm during Rabi season. Seeds should be sown 1.0 – 2.0 inches deep in rows. If it is sown in Rabi season, after sowing the seeds should be sprinkled and covered well with a ladder. If the soil is muddy in the Kharif-2 season, the seeds will germinate if sown at a small depth.
Dose and application of fertilizers
Fertilizer levels vary according to the agricultural environment of Bangladesh. Before the last cultivation, the soil should be leveled by spraying all the chemical fertilizers. Applying rotten dung or compost manure with chemical fertilizers will reduce the need for chemical fertilizers. Chemical fertilizers should be sprayed on the land before the last cultivation and then the soil should be leveled with a ladder.
Weeds should be cleared within 15-20 days of seedling emergence. If the tree is very dense, it should be thinned and the distance between the trees in the row should be 2.0-3.0 inches. When the seedlings are 30-35 days old, they should be chopped with a hoe or spade to control weeds or thin the tree if it is very dense.
Crop collection and seed storage
Binasayabin-6 takes 102 to 115 days depending on the season from sowing to harvesting. When the mature soybean plant turns to yellow with pods and the leaves fall off, it should be collected from the soil. Soybean plants with pods should be dried in the sun for 3-4 days and the seeds should be separated by beating them with a stick. The seeds should be dried well in the sun, cooled, and stored.
Stem rot disease
The disease is caused by fungi in the soil. The leaves of the affected tree turn yellow and black spots are seen on the stems and roots. Infected seedlings or trees gradually dry out and die. The source of the disease can be destroyed by deep cultivation and clearing of crop residues, weeds, and debris from the land.
The disease is characterized by the presence of bright golden or yellow circular spots on the surface of the green leaflets of soybeans. The attack of this disease can be reduced a lot by sowing healthy and disease-free seeds.
Origin / history, production Technology, Care of olives
Origins of Olives :
According to new research, the olive was first domestically cultivated in the Eastern Mediterranean between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago. Study shows that modern variety of olives, which are larger and juicier than wild varieties, were probably first cultivated from wild olive trees at the frontier between Turkey and Syria. The olive tree is a symbol of sacredness, peace, and unity. Archaeologists have discovered olive at sites dating to about 8,000 years old. Archaeologists find evidence of olive oil production in Carmel, Israel by dating as far back as 6,000 years ago. As a peaceful weapon, The Romans continued the expansion of the olive tree to the countries bordering the Mediterranean. The olive tree is popular in Sardinia during Roman times, while in Corsica it has been brought by the Genoese after the fall of the Roman Empire. The olive tree has continued to spread outside the Mediterranean and today is farmed in southern Africa, Australia, Japan, China, and other countries.
Production technology of Olives :
Species and Variety Selection:
The selection of crop species and varieties is the most important factor in commercial fruit cultivation. Although it is made up of small tracts of land, Bangladesh is rich in regional soil and climate diversity. As a result, there is a huge potential for the commercial cultivation of different fruits in different parts of the country. Suitable fruit species and varieties should be selected for the area in which the garden will be established. If the species selection is not correct, the desired result will not be obtained. There are two varieties of olives, an Arabian olive or olive. This variety is mostly used for making oil. The second is the Indian variety, which is usually eaten raw. Used in making pickles and sauces. The Indian variety grows well in Bangladesh.
Land must be selected first for olive cultivation. Weeds should be cleared after selecting high or medium elevation lands where floodwaters do not stand. Then you have to cultivate well. Apart from land, its saplings can also be planted in the backyard or in an abandoned place.
At the time of planting
May to October is the best time to plant seedlings. However, if there is a water irrigation facility, it can be planted throughout the year.
The hole should be kept open at least 15 to 20 days before planting. The hole should be at a distance of 23 * 23 feet. After making the hole, the amount of decomposed dung, TSP fertilizer, potash, gypsum, and zinc fertilizer should be mixed well with the soil and closed in the hole. If there is a shortage of sap in the soil, water irrigation should be arranged. Seedlings should be planted in the middle of the hole 10 to 15 days after filling the hole.At the time of planting, care should be taken so that the roots of the seedlings remain upright and do not get injured in any way. Water the seedlings after planting. As well bamboo and fences have to be arranged. Then water every two days.
Small-bodied insects eat leaves, stems, young tips, and fruit juices. They do damage in two ways. First, sucking the sap reduces the vitality of the plant. Second, they release a type of toxin into the sap during eating. This results in yellow spots on the leaves, tips, and fruits. If severely infected, the whole tree, including the fruit, is likely to die.
In case of infestation of this insect, insects should be controlled by spraying Diazinon or Chlorpyrifos mixed in water on the affected plant.
This insect secretes a kind of sweet juice by eating the leaves and sap of tender shoots of the tree. When it attacks more, it is attacked by shoot mold fungus and black coating is seen on the leaves.
Insects can be killed by hand to prevent minor attacks. Infected leaves and stalks need to be removed quickly. If the detergent is mixed with water and sprayed, the insects go away. In case of high infestation of insects, pesticides should be mixed with water and sprayed in the afternoon as per the advice of the Department of Agriculture extension.
In the attack of this disease, black dirt accumulates on the leaves, fruits, and stems. Mealybugs or whiteflies are responsible for this disease.
Infected leaves and twigs should be pruned and destroyed. Since Mealybugs or whiteflies attack this disease. So you have to spray pesticides to control them. Then propiconazole fungicide should be mixed with water and sprayed twice after 15 days.
Regular watering and fertilizing should be given after planting the seedlings. However, additional fertilizer and water cannot be given. Divide into three parts and apply fertilizer at the base of the tree. The first installment is at the beginning of the rainy season. The second installment is at the end of the monsoon. The last installment is best given at the end of winter. The soil should be mixed with manure and irrigated at a distance of about two to three feet from the base of the tree. Use the same fertilizer as when digging the hole.
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation should be arranged based on the amount of rainfall, soil, and age of the tree as it can withstand dry weather and drought. It is better to irrigate for one and a half months in winter and 20 days in summer. Irrigation should be given at least twice after fruiting. In order to prevent waterlogging at the base of the tree during the monsoon season, a quick drainage system should be maintained.
The tree flowers in April-May at the beginning of the monsoon and ripens in November-December before winter. The fruits remain green even after ripening. So fruit should be collected based on the increase in fruit size.
When the fruit is thrown to the ground by shaking the stalks, the fruit is injured and quickly destroyed. However, fruits can also be collected by holding a net under the tree and shaking the branches.
With good care, 200-250 kg of fruit can be obtained from a full-grown tree every year.
Origin / history, production Technology, Care of Mustard
Origin of Mustard :
For many centuries Mustard has been one of the most widely grown and used spices and oil-containing crops in the world. It originated in Ancient Egypt. The Greeks used Mustard as a medicine and spice a long time ago. The Romans followed the Greeks using it as both food and medicine as well, they used it as a cure for anything from hysteria to snakebite to bubonic plague. They brought Mustard seedlings to Northern France where it was cultivated by Monks. Monasteries were producing considerable amounts of income from Mustard sales By the 9th century. Mustard comes from the English mustard, meaning condiment. Mustard was a spice known to Europeans before the discovery of the Asian spice trade route. Western people had mustard long before they had pepper, which originated in India. Ancient people from India to Egypt to Rome used mustard seeds with their meat for seasoning When trade routes were established. Gradually it spreads all over the world.
Production technology of Mustard :
Variety selection :
3 types of mustard are cultivated in Bangladesh. These are Tory, TS-72, and Rye.
Name of variety Oil contained required day for maturity Yield Tori – 7 38-41% 70-80 days 950 -1100 kg TS-72 40-42% 75-85 days 1.45-1.65 tons per ha Rye -5 39-40% 80 days 90-120 pods per plant
Mustard seeds are usually sown by scattering. It is convenient to give fertilizer, irrigation, and weeding in line sowing. The distance from the line to line is 1 foot. The soil needs to have the necessary sap at the time of sowing.
Seeds of Tori-6, Kalyania, Sonali Sorisha, Bari Mustard-6, Bari Mustard-6, and Bari Mustard-6 can be sown from mid-Ashwin to mid-Kartik depending on the variation of different regions and soil conditions. Rye-5 can be sown from Kartik to Agrahayana month.
Weeding is done once in 15-20 days after sowing and a second time during flowering.
The first irrigation should be given within 25-30 days of sowing (at the time of flowering) and the second irrigation should be given at 50-55 days (at the time of fruiting). If there is less sap in the soil at the time of sowing, light irrigation should be given within 10-15 days of seedling growth.
Amount of fertilizer required :
Urea: 1200 – 1100 g/ decimal
TSP : 650 – 625 g/decimal
MOP : 350 – 325 g/decimal
Gypsum : 650 – 625 g / decimal
Zinc sulphate : 20 – 15 g/decimal
Borax / boric acid : 25 – 25 g/ decimal
Rotten dung : 15 tons 15 tons / decimal
Both adult and young insects absorb sap from mustard leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. If the level of attack is high, the growth of flowers and fruits is hindered and the leaves curl. Aphid insects secrete a type of sap that causes the Sooty Mold fungus to grow and the affected area to turn black. This is why the fruit cannot grow properly, it is small in seed size. The amount of oil in the seed decreases. There is a risk of complete crop failure if attacked during or before fruiting and if remedial measures are not taken.
- Early sowing of mustard in late Ashwin and mid-Kartik (October) i.e. early sowing of mustard reduces the risk of attack by Aphid insects.
- If there are more than 50 insects per plant, Malathion-57 EC or Sumithion-57 EC or Folithion-57 EC or Echothion-57 EC Diazinon 60 EC should be mixed in 2 ml per liter of water and sprayed in the afternoon.
Mustard leaf blight disease
In the initial stage, the symptoms of this disease are observed on the old leaves under the mustard tree. Later, the fungus attacks the leaves, stems, and fruits of the tree in a circular black spot. If the level of attack is high, the leaves will be blighted. As a result, the yield of mustard is very low.
Mustard varieties with disease resistance should be cultivated. Dhali, Daulat, Bari mustard-6, Bari mustard-6, etc. varieties are tolerant to some leaf scorching diseases.
Disease-free seeds should be sown.
Before sowing the seeds should be sown by purifying the seeds with Vitavax-200 (2-3 g fungicide/kg seed).
As soon as this disease occurs, Rover-50WP or Dithane M-45 should be mixed with water at the rate of 0.2% (2 g per liter of water) and sprayed 3-4 times in a row for 20-12 days.