Basic Production Technology of Mushroom
Mushroom cultivation technology is very easy and anyone can cultivate it in the indoor area of their house. The man was nomadic for many years. Their survival mainly depended on roots, fruit, and hunting animals for food. Eventually, man learns the culture of cultivation. Man learns agriculture by observing nature.
so what is the most important part of the component of Agriculture?
Of course the crops.
But what is exactly to be meant by crops?
The seed of a plant grow on a large scale are called crops. Such as wheat crops, maize crops, rice crops, vegetables, Mashroom etc. All the crops required special treatment and methods for large scale production. We have a limited source of nutrients, water, soil, and other component related to the production of agricultural crops. Again our increasing population directly affects all the sources.
So, therefore, we need to learn about the technologies and methods related to Agriculture.
Cultivation / Production technology of Mushroom
In the rural areas of our country, an umbrella-shaped white fungus can be seen growing in shady damp places or in piles of dung around the houses. We call it the frog’s umbrella. These fungi, which grow like weeds, are not suitable for eating. Similarly, the frog’s umbrella, which is produced by the scientific method of cultivation, is highly nutritious and very popular as a vegetable in the world. This frog’s umbrella is called ‘mushroom’ in English. Mushroom cultivation and its use have not spread in our country. So far in our country, only mushroom soup is served as a delicacy in Chinese restaurants.
Why is the cultivation of Mushrooms profitable?
Mushrooms are a nutritious food. It is rich in vitamins and minerals, carbs, and digestive enzymes. Every 100 grams of mushrooms contains 3.1 grams of protein, 0.6 grams of fat, 1.4 grams of minerals, 0.4 grams of fiber, 4.3 grams of sugar, 8-milligram calcium, 110 milligrams of phosphorus, 1.5 m. grams iron, 0.14 m.gram Vitamin B1, 0.17 m.gram, B2, 2.4 m.grams Niacin, 12 m.grams of vitamin C. Besides, food energy has 43 calories.
Mushrooms usually contain slightly more minerals than fish and meat and twice as many minerals as conventional vegetables. The amount of protein is four times more than cabbage and other vegetables. It also contains folic acid, which helps prevent amnia. Mushrooms are a portion of good food for diabetics and those who are obese. It is quite tasty to eat and easily digested and suitable for marketing in only 10-15 days. It does not require cultivable land for cultivation. Materials required for cultivation are readily available. Unemployed youths and women can cultivate it at home. Its price is much higher in the market than other vegetables, so it is very profitable to cultivate.
Types of mushroom which should be cultivated in the context of Bangladesh:
The climate of Bangladesh can be basically divided into 3 parts. Namely: summer, monsoon, and winter. A single type of Mushroom cultivation will not be profitable in all seasons. Therefore, in the context of Bangladesh, two types of mushroom cultivation are given priority depending on the season. They are –
(1) Straw Mushroom ;
(2) Oyster Mushroom ;
“Straw mushroom” in summer and monsoon and “Oyster” in winter are suitable for cultivation in Bangladesh.
Apart from these, some other species of mushrooms are cultivated all over the world. Such as –
(1) Bracket Fungi ;
(2) Chanterelles ;
(3) Coral Fungi ;
(4) Cup Fungi ;
(5) Jelly Fungi ;
(6) Psychedelic ;
(7) Puffball etc.
To cultivate mushrooms :
Seeds, Paddy straw, Thin polythene bags, Hanging-bamboo or perforated black polythene sheets, a Hygrometer for measuring room temperature and humidity, a Hand sprayer for controlling the room temperature and humidity, Disinfectant, Blades, Small knife, etc.
Cultivation technology of Mushrooms :
1. Must collect seeds or spawn from mushroom cultivation center. Polythene containing spawn weighing one kg should be opened. compost should be taken out and powdered.
2. Two kg of clean and dry straw of paddy should be collected. The straw should be cut to a one-inch size.
3. The amount of water should be boiled, to disinfect the straw. The straw pieces should be soaked in boiling water for one hour.
4. The straw should be taken out of the water and kept in a container with zero water.
5. Take five polybags and spread some straw inside the polybag first. Mushroom spawn should be given on the straw. In this way, straw and mushroom spawn should be spread in four layers in a polybag. At the last level, the straw has to be spread again.
6.When the straw is laid, the polybag should be tied very tightly. Thus each polybag should be tied.
7.Make 10-12 holes on the four sides of the polybag. Then the bags should be left for 15-16 days to germinate mycelium.
8. Each polybag should be sprinkled with water 4-5 times a day.
9. After 27-28 days, mushroom shoots will start sprouting all around. After 4-6 days, edible mushrooms should be picked from the roots.
In this way, the profit will be more in mushroom cultivation. Because about half a kg of mushrooms can be found from each polybag. So about two and a half kg of mushrooms will be produced from five bags
Care of mushrooms :
The temperature in the mushroom bags should be kept between 35-45oC from the time of sowing to the time of germination and the temperature should be kept between 30-35oC when the mushrooms start sprouting.
Covered polythene increases the heat and when heat generates high, to reduce the heat poly bag should open. So the heat has to be controlled according to the conditions.
Protect the mushroom bed from insects and spiders.
Mushroom polybags need to be wet all the time. When the surface of the polybag is dry, it is necessary to control the humidity by sprinkling water lightly from time to time.
The bags should be placed where there is a good circulation of wind as well as enough darkness
It is better to eat mushrooms fresh.
In a polythene bag, mushrooms usually stay good for 10-15 hours.
Mushrooms can be stored effortlessly in the refrigerator for up to a few weeks.
Mushrooms can be stored for a long time by drying in the sun.
In the chemical process, mushrooms can be stored and eaten for a long time.
1. Seed or spawn should not be exposed to sunlight in any way. Always keep the house cool. If it gets too hot, hang the sack around the house and keep it wet.
2. Mushrooms should always be kept clean around the house and outside the house. Insects called mushroom fly damage mushrooms in unclean places.
3. Pesticides cannot be used.
4. Oyster mushrooms should be picked up and slightly cut from the base before spreading.
5. Fungicide and hot water can be used to treat spawns.