The future of Biofloc fish farming for a developing country like Bangladesh.
You can become self-sufficient by farming fish in a Biofloc method. However, water management and floc are important issues for Biofloc fish farming. Before starting any fish or shrimp farming or Biofloc project, you need to know in detail about the source of water and its quality or usability.
What is Biofloc?
According to fisheries researchers, Biofloc could be a method where recyclable food is created from organic waste nutrients.
This means that the bacteria and algae that are produced use the organic waste of nitrogen produced within the water as food to breed without producing ammonia gas and this is often called floc.
These flocks contain lots of ingredients, which offer nutrition to the fish. Scientists say that flocks are created through probiotic cultures.
How to cultivate fish in Biofloc method:
You can also become self-sufficient by farming fish in a Biofloc method. However, water management and floc is an important issue for Biofloc fish farming. Before any fish or shrimp farming or Biofloc project, it is necessary to know in detail about the source of water and its quality or usefulness.
Deep tube wells, seas, rivers, large reservoirs, lakes, rainwater, etc. can be used if the water quality is good.
First, the tank should be disinfected with bleaching powder. Then the quality of the selected water should be tested and filled.
Quality of water in fish farming:
Some features of water are required for fish farming in the Biofloc method-
- The temperature is 25 to 30 degrees Celsius.
- Water Color will be green, light green, brown
- Dissolved oxygen 6-7 mg or liter.
- PH 7.5-8.55. Alkalinity 50-120 mg or liter
- Hardness 80-150 mg or liter
- Calcium 4-160 mg or liter
- Ammonia 0.01 mg or liter
- Nitrite 0.1-0.2 mg or liter
- Nitrate 0-3 mg or liter
- Phosphorus 0.1-3 mg or liter
- HTS 0.01 mg or liter
- Iron 0.1-0.2 mg or liter
- Water clarity 25-35 cm
- Water depth 3-4 feet
- The density of the blade is 300 grams or 16 tons. TDS 14,000-16,000 mg or 16 liters. Salinity 3-5 ppt.
Preparation of flock in water:
In the first dose 5 ppm probiotic, 50 ppm chitagur, 5 ppm yeast, 1 liter per ton of water, oxygen should be applied and cultured for 8-10 hours. From the 2nd day, 1 ppm probiotic, 5 ppm chitagur, 1 ppm yeast, 1 liter of water per ton should be applied daily by cultivating in the above time and manner.
If the appropriate amount of flock is formed in the water –
- The color of the water looks green or brown.
- Small particles can be seen in the water
- When tested, the water looks ammonia-free
- The density of 0.3 g flock per liter of water can be found
- Their genealogy is observed after feeding.
First, you have to make the round cage of the tank with a grade rod. The place where the tank will be placed; CC should be poured there equal to the circumference of the cage. An outlet pipe for water should be exactly placed in the center of the circle. Then the cage should be placed on the cast floor and buried in the ground for cultivating fish. If the soil of the floor is hard and even, the floor can be prepared by spreading thick polythene evenly instead of pouring. Then cover the entire cage with high-quality tarpaulin. We should cover it with thick polythene and store water in the tank.
An aerator pump needs to be installed to provide an around-the-clock oxygen supply to the Biofloc tank. About 30,000 catfish can be farmed in a tank with a radius of 6 feet and a height of 4 feet.
It makes bacteria in the water in a special way and that is what recycles fish food – it is also capable of purifying water.
But we should keep in mind that if the balance of carbon and nitrogen in the water is not right, it will not work and the fish will die there. That is, if the method is not applied properly, the fish will get diseased or the fish will die. This is why Biofloc systems require separate management, which can increase costs over time.
In general, in the case of fish farming, we ask to give two hundred and fifty grams of salt percent at a certain time, which helps to keep the fish disease-free. It can happen here too. However, Salt water will be required for biofuels, this is not accurate information.
Advantages of Biofloc fish farming :
- The benefit of biofloc production is more fish in a small area.
- It reduces the wastage of fish food
- Converts nitrogen-containing waste into microbial proteins, and prevents the accumulation of organic waste in water.
- The water used in the biofloc system does not have a bad odor and does not require water change.
- This method maintains the quality of the water, as it prevents pathogenic bacteria.
- The fish have good oxygen supply in biofloc, which is not always the case in ponds.
- An artificial environment is created, where the fish grow quickly. About four months is enough to sell fish in the market.
- Ammonia Elimination: The beneficial bacteria present in the system control the amount of harmful ammonia in the system by converting ammonia into protein, an essential element for the physical growth of fish.
- Low cost and high profit: We know that 80% of the cost of fish farming is spent on food. In this method the beneficial bacteria in the system make the microorganic protein in the tank so it takes less food than other systems so the cost of cultivation is reduced and more profit is possible.
- Environmentally friendly aquaculture system: Fish is being farmed using beneficial bacteria that exist in nature. As a result, there is no need for various chemicals and antibiotics used in fish farming in this method. So it is an environmentally friendly fish farming method.
- Disease Outbreak Control: The beneficial bacteria in the Biofloc system prevents the growth of bacteria harmful to the fish and thus protects them from those bacteria.
Disadvantage of Biofloc Fish Farming :
- separate management for each species of fish is needed ;
- water should be prepared in a scientific way. Every measurement should be approximately accurate. Which may not be possible sometimes.
- In addition to ensuring the environment and water management, good quality fish will be needed. If diseased fish culture flock with disease-free fish, it will affect health.
- Skilled manpower is needed for Biofloc cultivation.
Species of fish that can be farmed with Biofloc technology:
Different species of fish are farmed using this technology in different countries of the world. But in our country fish farming through this technology has not started yet widely. Therefore, different species of fish can be farmed in our countries, such as Tilapia, Rui, catfish, Pabda, Gulsha, and Shrimp. However, those who want to start fish farming using this new technology must first start farming with tilapia and catfish.
Future prospects of Biofloc Fish Farming:
The principle of Biofloc technology is that it is heterotrophic. Accelerates bacterial reproduction, by ensuring a high carbon-nitrogen ratio in the water that converts harmful ammonia into microorganisms. It is an environmentally friendly alternative technology that ensures the reuse of nutrients that are constantly present in the water through recycling. It is possible to produce more fish in less space using this sustainable technology. If this technology can be spread through expansion at the field level, then it is possible to increase the fish production of our country to a greater extent. Which will play an active role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the government.
Fish farming with Biofloc technology is becoming popular day by day. This method of fish farming is going on all over the country. As a result of fish farming in this way, meeting the demand for protein in the country in the future will open new doors for export. However, due to a lack of information and wrong methods, many people are not getting the desired success in the Biofloc method. There is a need to form this sector-related organization to motivate fish farming in the Biofloc system.