Top 5 famous flowers of Bangladesh and Their Production Technology, Care and Economic benefits.
1. Production Technology, Care, and Economic benefits of Rajnigandha (Tuberose):
Tuberose is a member of the Amaryllidaceae family. The scientific name is Polianthes tuberosa. The original habitat of this flower is Mexico. This flower stays alive in the vase for 8-10 days and spreads its fragrance every night and enchants the home environment. Due to the increasing demand for this flower in Bangladesh, it is now being cultivated commercially.
The tuberose is very popular as a fragrant flower. There is no pair of these flowers in terms of demand and from a commercial point of view. It is unique for vases as cut flowers. Besides, this flower is used for making garlands, wreaths, beanies, and crowns.
Production Technology of Tuberose:
Rajnigandha propagates through both seeds and tubers. However, in our country, tuberose is usually cultivated by tubers. The bulb which looks like an onion and appears at the base of the tree is called a tuber. In old trees, there are many bulbs in the form of bushes. The middle bulb is larger. For breeding purposes, medium to large-size bulbs is used.
Larger bulbs produce healthy trees and early flowering, but smaller bulbs produce weaker and later flowers. All the characteristics of the mother plant remain intact in the tree produced from the tuber and the tree flowers in a short time. In winter the tubers are usually dormant under the ground. Suitable for planting tubers at the end of winter.
Climate and soil:
Rajnigandha prefers a warm and humid climate, which is why this flower is cultivated in our country in summer. Successful cultivation of this flower requires an average temperature of 20-300 centigrade and a humid climate. Well-drained, organic matter-rich loam soil is ideal for Rajnigandha cultivation.
Land preparation and fertilizer application:
The land has to be prepared well by cultivating 4-5 times. At the time of last cultivation, depending on the fertility per hectare, 5-10 tons of dung, 250 kg of phosphate, and 200 kg of MP fertilizer should be well mixed with the soil. When the new plants start to grow 3 weeks after the bulb planting, half of the 300 kg urea fertilizer per hectare should be applied first and the other half should be applied at the time of flowering. For good quality flowers, 12 kg boric acid and 8 kg zinc sulfate can be applied per hectare.
Selected bulbs should be planted in March-April. Old roots have to be cut off while planting. The distance from the line to line is usually 30 cm and the distance from bulb to bulb in each line is 20 cm. The tubers should be planted in such a way that their tip is flat on the ground. Each bulb (1.5 – 3.0 cm) should be planted straight at a depth of 8-10 cm. If there is a lack of sap in the soil, irrigation should be provided before planting the tubers. Besides, it is better to give light irrigation to plant the tubers in the soil after planting.
Rajnigandha fields should be kept free from weeds. Irrigation should be given as required in the dry season and drainage ditches should be made for the drainage of excess water during the rainy season. In winter, it is better to cut the tops of the plants completely. To control aphids and thrips, it is better to mix 2 ml of malathion per liter of water and spray every 8-10 days.
Bulb or tuber lifting and storage:
When the tree stops growing in December-January, the tubers have to be removed from the soil, cleaned, and spread on a shady dry floor. Mature tubers can be selected as required and used for later breeding. The tuber is very hardy and can be easily preserved under normal conditions.
- Retuned crop :
It is possible to produce flowers again in the season with proper care by leaving the previous year’s crop of tuberose in the field. In this process, although the number of flower stalks is more, the market value decreases as the quality of flowers is lower in all respects. However, with double fertilizer and adequate irrigation, and proper intermediate care in this process, it is possible to make a substantial profit by producing off-season flowers.
- Cultivation in tubs :
The tuber can be cultivated in large tubs. Regular irrigation with a suitable tub mixture along with a few tubers and occasionally a little bit of khail and dung decomposing mixture gives better quality flowers.
2. Production Technology, Care, and Economic benefits of rose:
Roses are a winter seasonal flower. But nowadays, roses are being cultivated throughout the year. Roses are the queen of flowers as they have a beautiful color, smell, elegance. Roses are grown all year round in all the countries of the world. Roses are commonly used as cut flowers. Also on social and religious occasions, there is no pair of roses to decorate the garden, lawn, carrier, corridor. The use of roses is also noticed in the perfume industry.
Varieties of roses:
There are mainly 7 varieties of roses. Namely- Hybrid Tea, Hybrid Perpetual, Polyantha, Floribunda, Miniature, and Plumber.
This flower grows well in waterlogged soils. However, soils mixed with organic manure are very useful. Land with high and medium elevation, shadeless and good communication system, land with irrigation facilities, and pH value of the land is between 6.0 and 7.5.
Production Technology of Rose:
Propagation: Although rose seedlings can be made from several types of seeds, branch seedlings are mainly used for cultivation. Rose seedlings can usually be prepared by grafting, cutting, budding, etc.
- Grafting :
The bark of a healthy strong branch of the tree from which the sapling is to be made should be rounded with a sharp knife by cutting 3-5 cm round bark. Then mix two parts of soil and rotten dung manure in equal parts and apply it in a handful on the skin. The soil is then tied with polythene. It does not dry out the soil water, moreover, it is convenient to see from the outside when the roots come out. If the water dries out, the water has to be injected with an injection syringe. The roots come out in 5-6 weeks. Then just below the polythene binding, loosen the pen in the first half and the other half after 2/3 days, leave the pen in the shade for 2/3 days, then open the bundle of polythene and put it on the ground.
- Cutting :
In order to make a cutting, a strong and perfect branch has to be selected. The stalks of the branch should be cut to a length of about 20-22 cm in such a way that the upper head is equal and the lower head i.e. the head will be planted in the ground. A few leaves and thorns under the stalks are broken off and buried in the soil mixed with organic manure and watered regularly. The cutting is made in a period of 6/7 weeks. The wood part of apple exotic roses is less and they often do not want to be cut.
A large number of seedlings can be produced in a very short time by budding. In this method, it is necessary to make a good variety of rosebud with the branches or stems of a wild rose tree. In this method native wild rose trees are used as root trees. Because even if their flowers are not of good quality, they can survive by adapting to the native climate. In the month of Ashar-Shravan, the branches of wild roses are cut and cut. The best time to add buds in our country is from the beginning of Agrahayan to the middle of Magh.
This method involves placing the bud on the growing trunk of the root tree or at the beginning with a very small sharp knife, like the English letter T, in such a way that the bud stays out. Is. In this way, 3/4 days should be left in the shade and then in the sun The first few days should be watered in such a way that the junction of the buds does not get wet. Care should be taken to ensure that the roots of the tree do not sprout or grow in any bud. If they grow, they have to be broken. Seedlings will emerge from the original buds in 2-3 weeks.
If the land is drier, you have to wait till the joe comes with light irrigation. Organic manure should be well mixed with the soil. Lime or other necessary fertilizers should be given to maintain the pH of the soil. Bromide chloropicrin (162 kg/acre) should be applied to keep the land free from chlorine and soil-borne diseases during cultivation to keep insects and spiders free. TSP and MOP fertilizers should be mixed well in the soil during the last tillage.
Indigenous rose flower cutting method is used to produce saplings and seedlings are produced in different grafting methods by collecting selected varieties of the scion (which is grafted with pulses) in the bed system. At the beginning of the seedling that is produced, soil balls are made and planted in certain lands. To plant the seedlings, usually make a hole of 20 to 30 cm (8 to 12 inches) in size and 25 to 30 cm (10 to 12 inches), it has to be well placed inside, and the hole has to be well covered with soil. For fast-growing trees, a distance of 2 feet (from tree to tree) and 3 feet (row to row) should be maintained. No stalks should be allowed to be from the bottom of the cutting.
3. Production Technology, Care, and Economic benefits of Marigold :
Marigold is one of the winter flowers. There is no substitute for marigolds on all occasions including weddings, birthdays, wedding anniversaries, home decor, Victory Day, Independence Day, and Martyr’s Day. Marigold leaf juice is very useful in stopping the bleeding of cut skin, drying cut wounds, and as a disinfectant.
Varieties of Marigolds :
Chinese, Rajganda, African and French varieties of Ganda are cultivated more in our country. Variegated varieties of ganda are yellow, red, orange, dark brown, a mixture of red and yellow. African species are straight and tall, 30-100 cm tall. The flowers are orange, yellow and dark brown. French marigold trees are short and bushy, 15-30 cm tall. The flowers are small in size, abundant and red in color. The orange beauty tree is very tough. The flowers are dark orange. The more branches, the more flowers.
Climate and soil :
Mild cold weather is good for marigolds. Usually, between 18 to 20 degrees centigrade, the plant grows well and blooms more. When the temperature rises above 35 degrees centigrade, the growth of the plant is disrupted and flowering is reduced. Even severe cold is a problem for trees. Soil acidity or pH 5.8 to 6.5 is good for marigold cultivation.
Marigold grows on any soil. However, for commercial cultivation, it is better to have clay soil and loamy soil.
Production Technology of Marigold :
By Using Seed :
Seedlings can be produced in seedbeds or beds, tub tubs, polybags, plastic cups, trays, etc. In order to produce seedlings through seeds, the soil in the seedbed should be well compacted. Seedbeds should be watered regularly. Seedlings germinate within 5-6 days after sowing. If the seedlings are 1.5 inches to 2 inches long, the tip should be cut off. So that the seedlings are not extra tall.
In the case of planting in the mainland, it is better if the seedlings obtained from seeds have three to four leaves. In the afternoon, when the sun’s heat subsides, seedlings should be planted in the ground. The distance from row to row will be two hands and the distance from seedling to seedling will be six inches. Before planting the seedlings, mix two teaspoons of Dithane-M45 with water in a container and soak the seedlings in the water for 5 to 6 minutes to remove the seedlings.
Marigold seedlings can be made from branch cuttings and seeds. Although it can be cultivated all year round, the yield is good in winter. In order to graft with branches, the branches of a marigold tree should be cut 8-10 cm long. Pieces of twigs should be planted in the seedbed with a couple of episodes. The best time in March. Seedbeds should be kept wet with regular irrigation. Leaves germinate in 20-25 days.
Fertilizer application :
Every hundred acres of land requires compost dung, 40 kg urea 2 kg, TSP 3 kg, and MOP 2 kg fertilizer. These fertilizers should be mixed with the soil.
If cultivated commercially, it is better to cultivate by mixing 15-29 tons of dung manure per hectare. Irrigation should be given after planting the seedlings. Nitrogen, potash, and phosphate-based fertilizers should be given in the ratio of 100: 65: 65. Boron and zinc fertilizers should be given to make the marigold flowers bigger in size and color better. Half of the nitrogenous urea fertilizer and other fertilizers should be mixed with the soil during land preparation. The remaining half of urea seedlings should be sprinkled in rows 30-40 days after planting and mixed with soil for irrigation.
4. Production Technology, Care, and Economic benefits of Dahlia :
Dahlia, a favorite flower of all. Dahlia is one of the winter flowers. It is very popular for its dazzling arrangement of dahlia petals and variety of colors. Dahlia is a beautiful flower that is glorious in its beauty and abundance of colors. Its scientific name is Dahlia variabilis. Dahlia belongs to the composite family. The native place of this flower is Guatemala, Mexico. Dahlia is a well-known flower all over the world, even in Bangladesh. This flower is being cultivated extensively in Bangladesh.
Varieties of Dahlia :
Dahlia is a herbaceous plant. According to the composition and variety of flowers, dahlias in England have been divided into 11 classes by dahlias, which are now generally accepted around the world. There are many varieties under these 11 classes. Dahlias have single and twin flowers.
Loamy soils are good for dahlia cultivation. In shady places, these trees become weak and tall, and the flowers bloom is short and the brightness also decreases. Thus, the dahlia has to be cultivated in lands that get adequate sunlight.
For cultivating dahlia, some measures have to be taken according to the weather. There is no need to water the plant on rainy days until the soil is moist. In the summer season, it is necessary to increase the amount of water to make the soil moist. Because dahlia trees need moist soil.
Production Technology of Dahlia :
By Using Tubers :
Dahlia seeds, root tubers, stalks and in some cases, twin branches propagate. The method of making seedlings from root tubers and branch cuttings is that the root tubers grown at the base of the dahlia tree are used for making seedlings the following year. At the end of flowering in the month of Falgun-Chaitra, when the tree becomes dull and the leaves and stems are dry, the tuber matures and becomes suitable for collection.
The tubers have to be picked up intact from the ground and dried in the air for a day or two and stored in dry sand-like potatoes. Then in the month of Bhadra-Ashwin, the tubers are planted in half soil and half sand mixed seedbed or tub and sprinkled with a little water and in a few days, new seedlings emerge from the tuber’s eyes. Seedlings 2 to 5 cm. When tall, the root tuber can be cut into pieces along with the seedlings and planted in the designated land or in tubs.
In the month of Agrahayan, dahlias can be transplanted from Ashwin. At this time the young seedlings or twigs growing in the root tuber have to be cut or broken along with the knot. Apart from that, 15-20 cm. Can be collected with long branches and knots. Later, if the twigs are lightly irrigated as required in a tub filled with sand or buried in the ground, the twigs will take root in 10-15 days.
Tub planting :
In the environment of Bangladesh, from Ashwin to Agrahayan, dahlia saplings can be planted on land or in tubs. Dahlia soil has to be made deeply soft and neat.
80 to 90 cm depending on the variety in dahlia cultivated land. The distance is to line up and plant one sapling in each tub. The size of the tub is 25 cm. If it is good. After planting, the trees need to be irrigated in such a way that there is no shortage of water and waterlogging does not occur. Apart from that it is better to sprinkle water on the leaves of the tree from time to time. As the tree grows, it has to be supported with a stick.
For every 100 sq m of land, 200 kg of dung, 3 kg of wood ash, and 2 kg of TSP fertilizer have to be mixed well with the soil. The amount of dung in heavy soils should be increased for better production. For cultivating dahlia in tubs, 2 parts loamy soil, 2 parts sand, 2 parts wood ash, 1 part leaf rot manure, 1 part dung, 1 part khail, and 1 part TSP fertilizer are used to make the soil more fertile.
After planting, the trees need to be irrigated in such a way that there is never a shortage of water and waterlogging does not occur.
5. Production Technology, Care, and Economic benefits of Jasmine
Jasmine flowers have been used for a long time as perfumes in bouquets and garlands used in most of the festivals and ceremonies in Bangladesh. All in all, Beli flower is used in festivals. It is a rich flower.
Varieties of Jasmine Flower :
Three varieties of jasmine flowers can be seen. Namely- single and more fragrant, medium and double type, and large double type.
Production Technology of Jasmine :
Jasmine flowers are propagated by grafting and cutting methods.
Cutting or seedling :
Jasmine flower cuttings or seedlings can be made from late summer to late monsoon. The distance from seedling to seedling and row to row should be 50 cm. To plant the seedlings, the hole should be filled by digging holes and sunbathing the soil, mixing organic manure and wood ash with the whole soil. Then put a Jasmine cutting in each hole. It is better to put the cutting in the rainy season or towards the end of the rainy season. However, if the irrigation system is good, cuttings can be made even in spring.
Tub Planting :
Jasmine flowers can be grown in tubs by mixing urea, TSP, and MP fertilizers in organic soils. The tub can be placed on the roof of the house.
Cultivation and fertilizer :
Jasmine flowers can be cultivated in all types of soils except sandy soils and heavy clay soils. Proper irrigation and drainage systems are needed. Organic fertilizers, urea, phosphate, and MP should be applied during land preparation. Seedlings should be planted keeping a 1 m distance. Irrigation should be done by applying urea after planting the seedlings.
There should always be sap in the jasmine flower field. 10-12 consecutive days in summer, 15-20 consecutive days in winter and if the rains are not timely in the rainy season, it is necessary to understand the condition of the land and give 2-1 irrigations.
The tree blooms from February to July. Yield increases every year. The yield is higher in the creeping jasmine. Usually, after 5-6 years the trees are cut down and new saplings are planted.