Top 5 Main Cash Crops of Bangladesh and their Production Technology.
Tea Production Technology:
Tea cultivation began in Assam and adjoining areas of India in the early 1800s. Following this, the land was allotted in 1826 for tea cultivation on the banks of the Karnafuli River in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh. But tea cultivation is delayed there for various reasons. In 1840, a tea garden was established in the area adjacent to the present Chittagong Club in the city of Chittagong, known as Kundu Garden. This garden also became extinct soon after its establishment.
Then in 1854 AD, in 1848 AD, the Malnichhara tea garden was established near Airport Road in Sylhet city. Originally Malnichhara was the first commercial tea garden in Bangladesh. Until the independence of the country, tea was cultivated in only two districts in Bangladesh, one in Sylhet district which was known as ‘Surma Valley’, and the other in Chittagong district which was known as ‘Halda Valley’. At present, the Surma Valley of greater Sylhet is divided into six valleys.
Soil and Climate:
Acidic soils (pH 4.5 to 5.6), sandy loam soils are good for tea cultivation. A warm and humid environment and temperature of 26-28 degrees Celsius with rainfall above 2000 mm should be required. The aqueous part in the air i.e. humidity 80-90% is suitable for tea cultivation.
Tea plants of Bangladesh can be mainly divided into 8 Varieties – Assam variety, Manipuri variety, Burma variety, Chinese variety, Hybrid-1, Hybrid-2, Hybrid-3.
Seeds and seedlings:
Tea can be propagated in two ways – by seed and by organ method One hectare of land requires about 40 kg of seeds. However, organ propagation is important for producing high-quality trees. It is done in two ways- leaf grafting and cleft grafting. Inside leaf grafting is more popular. But cleft grafting is good for turning old trees into improved varieties.
Planting of saplings:
Before planting saplings, i.e. at the time of land preparation, a 3 feet deep drain should be dug. According to most experts, 25,000 to 35,000 saplings per acre bring good yields. However, if the saplings are planted in the row method, the leaves can be selected and inspected easily. At the time of planting the seedlings, good results are obtained by applying 14 gms of TSP fertilizer in each pit.
Shade tree planting:
Partial shade where 50-60 percent of sunlight comes is suitable for such kind of shade tree. They should be planted 20 to 40 feet away if there is a full-grown tree. Kakar Shiris, White Shiris, Black Shiris / Chhau are notable shade trees. Besides, jackfruit, blackberry, etc. can also be planted if required.
Green and soft leaves should be used as mulching. Paddy straw can be used even if there is nothing at present.
Water Irrigation and Weed Control:
In the dry season, 2 to 3 inches of water is required per acre per month. This water can be given twice every 15 days or once a month. Occasionally weeds need to be suppressed.
Tea tree pruning
8-10-month-old seedlings from seeds and cuttings should be cut with a sharp knife or scissors at a height of about 15 cm or 6 inches.
Pruning of seedlings at immature age:
Tea tree is considered as immature or immature tea plant till 5 (five) years after planting.
Pruning at mature age:
The purpose of pruning a mature tea tree is to keep the plant alive and leafy at all times during harvest and at limited height.
The method of application of immature tea yearly chemical mixture is usually applied in the same proportion in three phases (one-third) in April / May 1st, August 2nd, and October / November 3rd. It is profitable to select only the young tips for higher yield and quality. Manual page selection is common. Leaf picking usually starts in April and ends in the first half of December. If the leaves are selected every seven days, the leaves can be picked 30 to 36 times a year.
Suppression of insects and diseases
- Red spiders: In their attack, the leaves fade and turn dark. Omite 57 EC 0.4 ml / 400 l for suppression. Mix at the rate of water and spray.
- Tea mosquito: It is also known as “tea helopeltis”. Massive attacks stopped the growth of new leaves. Malathion 57 EC 5 ml./l. Mix at the rate of water and spray.
- Black Rot (leaf rot disease): The leaves first turn light brown in color and gradually change color.
Collection and transportation of leaves:
Arrangements should be made to bring the leaves to the factory in intact condition as soon as possible. This is because the leaf components begin to change as soon as the leaves are collected. On the other hand, when putting the leaves in the basket or in the car, care should be taken so that the tea leaves do not burn in the sun.
Jute Production Technology:
The jute production season (from sowing to harvesting of jute) is from the end of Falgun to the end of Ashar.
There are four types of jute for fiber crops. Desi jute, tosha jute, kenaf and mesta jute.
SL no. Name of variety Name of sub-variety Sowing time Lifespan yield (ton/ha) 01. Desi Pat CC -45 30 Falgun – 30 Chaitrra 135-160 days 5.16 02. Tosha pat OM-1 01Chaitrra-15 Boisakh 125-155 days 4.5 03. Kenaf HC-2 16 Chaitrra-15 Baisakh 125-155 days 6.64 04. Mesta HS-24 01 Chaitrra -15 Boisakh 180-210 days 4.7
High and medium elevation lands where rainwater does not stand for a long time and loamy soil is more suitable for jute cultivation. After the rains, the land should be prepared by cultivating 5-6 landscapes. The land has to be crushed and the land has to be weeded.
Apply 3.5 tons of dung manure per hectare 2-3 weeks before sowing in well-prepared land. The day of sowing-
15 kg urea
16 kg TSP and
22 kg MOP fertilizer should be applied to the land.
Then 6-7 weeks after sowing, weeds in the field should be cleared and seedlings should be thinned and 100 kg urea fertilizer per hectare should be re-sprayed in the field.
Jute seeds should be sown on time. Jute seeds are usually sown by scattering. However, if sown in rows, the yield of jute is higher.
If seeds are sown by broadcasting method -7.5-6.5 kg/ha seeds will be required, and for Row planting method -3.5-5.00 kg/ha seeds will be required.
The distance from the line to the line should be 30 cm or one foot and the distance from the plant to plant should be 8-10 cm or 3-4 inches.
Weed control and thinning of seedlings:
Weed control and thinning of seedlings should be done with 1st weeding within 15-21 days of sowing and 2nd weeding within 35-42 days.
Jute Insect and Disease Management:
They eat young and old leaves.
- In the first stage of the attack, the leaves are collected and destroyed with worms.
- Diazinon 80% liquid / Nuvcrin 40% liquid / Eclax 25% liquid per hectare mixed with 45 gm or 9 teaspoons of the drug sprayed in the field will control the scorpion.
Mole insect :
They cut the roots of the seedlings by making holes in the ground.
- If water is irrigated in the field, the insects will come out of the soil. Then the insects can be destroyed.
- Can be killed to the field using Ripcord 10 EC with approved doses.
White and red spiders
They suck the juice of tender leaves, causing the leaves to curl.
- This pest is naturally suppressed when there is a lot of rain.
- If the attack is severe, Thiovit 80% powder/econ 43% liquid can be applied in the approved dose.
The main disease control system of jute
Decay of plant
Type of damage: Seedlings die due to black spots at the beginning.
- Pick up dead seedlings and burn them.
- Seed treatment with Vitavex 200 (0.4%).
- Dithene M-45 is mixed with 30 liters of water per hectare at the rate of 25/30 gm and sprayed in the field after 3/4 consecutive days for 2/3 days.
Types of damage:
In both small and large conditions, when the germs of this disease attack the roots, the tree falls down.
- If there is water in the land, remove it.
- Keep the field litter-free.
- Burning of roots, roots, and other abandoned parts after cutting jute.
- Dithene M-45 can be applied to the field in approved doses.
Tobacco Production Technology:
Tobacco is a cash crop in Bangladesh. Tobacco belongs to the Solanaceae family, whose English name is Tobacco, the scientific name is Nicotiana tabacum / Nicotiana rustica. Apart from Rangpur and Kushtia in Bangladesh, some Virginia tobacco variety is also cultivated in Jessore, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Bogra, and Mymensingh areas. At present, about 42,000 metric tons of tobacco are produced annually in about 75,000 hectares of land in Bangladesh. In Chuadanga, Alamdanga, Daulatpur, Mirpur, Bheramara, and Kotwali in the Kushtia region, under the supervision of the British American Tobacco Company, annually about three thousand hectares of land is planted with high-quality Virginia tobacco.
Origin and distribution:
Tobacco is native to South America. Sufficient tobacco is produced in the United States, China, India, Soviet Union, Brazil, Japan, Turkey, etc. Tobacco is more or less cultivated almost everywhere in Bangladesh. Especially in the northern part of Bangladesh, tobacco is widely cultivated during the Rabi season.
Warm and humid climate is essential for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco is being cultivated in different climates in different countries of the world. Tobacco grows well at temperatures of 22 – C. Excessive rainfall or waterlogging is detrimental to tobacco cultivation. 1400-2100 mm: Annual rainfall is ideal for tobacco cultivation. Humidity should not be less than 50% during plant growth. When the leaves reach maturity, it is better to keep the air humidity a little lower. Leaf quality is low when it rains during leaf collection. Tobacco seeds need a temperature of 30 c for germination.
Tobacco is grown in all types of soils. However, tobacco grows well in light loamy soils. Land needs to be more organic. If there is a deficiency of potassium in the soil at all, the taste, color, and smell of tobacco leaves are not good. Therefore, it is necessary to apply green manure every 2 years in tobacco lands. Well-drained fertile sandy loam soil is very good for tobacco cultivation.
Species and Varieties:
Two species of tobacco, Virginia (Nicotiana tobacum) and Bilati or Motihari (Nicotiana rustica) are cultivated in this country. Cigarettes and cigars are made by Virginia, and tobacco used in hookah is made by the second.
It is recommended that the seed should not contain dust, crab, other varieties of seeds, and malnourished seeds. Different varieties of tobacco are produced from adulterated seeds. Therefore, it is necessary to collect good seeds by contacting the local sub-assistant officers of any reliable organization or Department of Agricultural Extension.
High, shadeless new land has to be selected for a seedbed. From the middle of the month of Sravan, the soil has to be plowed 8-10 times and the soil has to be shaken with a ladder. A seedbed measuring 120 x 305 x 15 cm should be made by cutting a ditch around the land. Make a 40-50 cm ditch between the two consecutive seedbeds and raise the seedbed with the soil of the ditch.5-6 kg dung manure should be given at the time of cultivation in each seedbed. In the last stage of seedbed preparation, 20/25 kg waste manure, 45 g urea, 45 g K2SO4, or 160 g Ash should be given per block.
Seedlings are planted in the seedbed like vegetables. Tobacco seeds have to be sown from the middle of Bhadra month. 10 grams of seeds are sown in each seedbed [305 cm x 120 cm or (10 feet x 4 feet)]. That amount of seeds is enough for 1 bigha (1338 sq m) of land.
Weeds have to be cleared by cultivating the land immediately after the previous harvest. This process started in the northern part of Bangladesh in the month of Bhadra. The land has to be well plowed and weeded 10-12 times with tillage and ladder.
Seedling hardening and planting:
In order to make the seedlings hard and tolerant, watering of the seedbed should be stopped 3/4 days before the seedling so that the seedlings can withstand the injury of planting in the new land. However, before transplanting, the seedbed should be soaked with water so that it can be easily transplanted with roots.
Cigarette and tobacco seedlings can be planted throughout the month of Kartik. For Hookah, tobacco seedlings can be planted till the middle of Agrahayan month. For Cigarettes, tobacco seedlings are to be planted in the month of Kartik. Seedlings are planted in rows. The distance from row to row should be 1 meter (3 feet) and the distance from seedling to seedling should be 60 cm (2 feet). Seedlings should be picked up from the seedbed in the morning and planted in the field by that time. The first 3/4 days after planting the seedlings, the field has to be watered in the morning and afternoon.
Application of fertilizer:
Fertilizer should be applied with the following dose :
Name of fertilizer Dose Urea 75-85 Kg TSP 50-55 Kg Potassium Sulphate 75-85 Kg
140 kg water hyacinth ash or 4/5 quintal ordinary ash can be applied instead of potash fertilizer.
Large quantities of dung manure or organic manure have to be applied to the tobacco land. However, if adequate nitrogen is supplied to the field, the quality of tobacco leaves becomes low. Excessive application of cow dung fertilizer thickens the tobacco leaves, destroys the aroma of the leaves, and increases the amount of nicotine. However, hookah tobacco leaves do not change much. The amount of fertilizer is determined depending on the fertility of the land. Usually, 50-60 quintals of dung manure is applied during land preparation. At the same time, 60 kg muriate of potash (adequate ash instead of potash fertilizer) can be applied per hectare.
Besides, 50 kg TSP fertilizer per hectare has to be applied during the last tillage of land preparation. If sufficient dung manure is applied to the land during the second and third cultivation, there is no need to apply urea fertilizer during the last cultivation. However, if adequate organic manure (dung or compost manure) is not applied, 40 kg urea per hectare has to be applied at the same time. 7/8 weeks after planting the seedlings apply 40 kg urea per hectare on top of the soil and remove weeds.
The seedlings grow new roots in the soil within 7/8 days of planting. At this time the soil has to be loosened with a spade or spade. If a clod is formed, it must be broken. Weeds must be removed. Weeds should be removed at least 3 times during the growing season. During the last weeding, the soil between the two rows has to be removed and given to the base of the plant. This creates a small drainage ditch between the two rows. As a result, the plant is quite strong and nourished. Tobacco plants do not need much irrigation to grow. The land may need to be irrigated 2/3 times depending on the water condition or sap. Even if it rains suddenly, we have to take care not to cause waterlogging. It often rains immediately after planting the seedlings and this causes surface crust. As soon as ‘Joe’(plough pan) forms, it has to break.
As soon as the flowers come on the plant, the work of topping has to start. Breaking the barrier increases the yield of tobacco and produces excellent quality tobacco. Breaking the top of a tree with 15-16 leaves is called topping.
Breaking of young shoots :
A few days after topping, new shoots emerge from the base of the leaf and grows rapidly, weakening the plant. So the new shoots have to be broken only when they are 8-10 cm. The lower 3/4 leaves of the tobacco plant are called poisonous leaves and those leaves have to be cut off. As a result, light and air can circulate well in the field. The rest of the leaves are nourished.
Diseases and pest control:
Among the diseases of tobacco are ‘mosaic disease’, ‘leaf curling’, ‘wilting disease’, ‘seed rot disease’ etc.
In the area of tobacco production, the seed rot disease is caused by a type of bacterial infection. In addition, a type of virus attack causes leaf curl disease. As a result of all these diseases, the yield of tobacco is significantly reduced and tobacco is of low quality. As soon as such a virus is found on a leaf, the tree should be uprooted and burnt, or buried in the ground. Similar measures should be taken in the case of “mosaic” disease.
Harvesting and curing tobacco is a three to three and a half month harvest. Leaves are the main crop of tobacco. So the leaves have to be collected at the appropriate time. Cigarette tobacco leaves are to be collected in the month of Magh-Falgun. When the color of the leaves is yellowish-green, the leaves are removed from the beginning. Hookah tobacco leaves are to be collected from the month of Chaitra. Leaf collection has to start when the leaves start to lose their vitality. No more than 1-3 leaves should be broken from each tree at a time. Depending on the maturity of the leaves, leaves should be collected 4-5 times.
Depending on the maturity of the leaves, the leaves should be collected 4-5 times. Of course, many times the whole tree is cut down and harvested. The trunk of the cut tree is cut into two or four equal lengths and dried in the sun. The quality of tobacco depends on the drying of the tobacco leaves. Tobacco leaves are usually dried in various ways. Such as:
(1) Pit Curing :
Three feet (90 cm) long, three feet (90 cm) wide and two and a half feet (75 cm) deep holes were dug and straw was spread on the inner wall and floor of the hole. The sun-drenched tobacco leaves are then arranged in a hole in the ground and covered with straw or sacks. The leaves will dry out in a week. These leaves should be dried in the sun if needed later. Bidi, Jorda, hookah, and nasal tobacco are usually dried in this manner.
(2) Drying in the shade:
In this method, to dry the tobacco leaves, bamboo poles are buried in the house and a rope or wire is hung on it vertically. Tobacco leaves are picked up and hung with a rope or string. Thus the leaves turn yellow. Then the leaves are dried in the sun and packed. Tobacco is dried in this manner for cheap cigarettes, bidis, Jorda, etc.
(3) Heat drying:
This process requires a special type of house, which is called ‘burn house’. Burnhouses are usually small, medium, and large, measuring 3.5 x 2.5 x 3.5 m, 3.5 x 3.5 x 5.0 m, and 5 x 5 x 7.5 m, and heat. Furnaces for flow and ventilators for ventilation are kept.
A handful of 14/15 leaves should be hung on a one-and-a-half-meter-long bamboo stick in such a way that the leaves are hanging downwards. Then a bamboo stick with a handful of tobacco leaves is arranged 20 cm-25 cm apart on a wooden shelf inside the burning house.
Doors and windows have to be closed by hanging a chronometer inside the burn to control the heat. The heat treatment work is completed in three stages: –
Yellowing of leaves:
At this stage, burn temperature should be kept at 28-38 o C and humidity at 80% -90%. The color of the leaves is better if the temperature is increased in the following manner: –
The first 12 hours 26oC / 60oF
Next 6 hours 30oC / 75oF
Next 6 hours 33oC / 90oF
The next 8 hours 36oC / 100oF
Drying of coarse data:
In this condition, if the temperature is increased from 1-1.5oC to 50oC every 2 hours, the color of the leaves becomes very good. It is not advisable to keep the humidity inside the burn at more than 20% during the heating of 36oC – 50oC. All parts of the leaf except the thick stalk have to be kept dry at 56oC.
Coarse stalk drying:
To dry thick stalk, the stalk should be kept at 50oC – 66oC for 20-30 hours.
Drying in the ground:
Tobacco leaves with leaves or leaves are cut vertically and piled for a day or two. Then in the morning the tobacco leaves or sliced stalks are exposed to the sun. Is dried until the afternoon. It is brought home in the evening and piled up and dried the next morning as before. When the tobacco is well dried, it is stored in small bundles. Tobacco is dried in this manner for hookah, bidi, etc.
The average yield per hectare of normally produced tobacco in Bangladesh is 750-900 kg (8-10 mana per acre). With proper care, it is known to get 14 quintals per hectare (yield is determined after cleaning the leaves).
Sugarcane Production Technology:
Sugarcane is one of the major cash crops in Bangladesh. Like jute and tobacco, sugarcane is also more profitable for the farmers nowadays as it is more profitable than cash crop cultivation. Farmers are giving more importance to sugarcane cultivation than jute. Some sugarcane is grown in every district of Bangladesh, but due to the effects of climate, the northern districts of the country are suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
October-April (Kartik-Chaitra) can be planted in this long period. However, it is better to plant in advance, because if you plant at this time-
- The sprouting buds get a chance to grow enough,
- The germination of the bud is placed at right time , and
. Companion crops can be cultivated with sugarcane.
Favourable Climate :
Summer and subtropical climate suitability for sugarcane. Both hot and cold are harmful to sugarcane. In fact, an average daily temperature of 25 C is ideal for sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane grows at a temperature of 31oC and 11oC. It is damaged below Moderate rainfall. 1780-2030 mm rainfall is good for sugarcane cultivation. Rainfall of fewer than 60 inches or 1520 mm is not good for production. However, with the help of irrigation, sugarcane can be grown even in areas with a rainfall of 630-780 mm.
Sugarcane grows well in clayey, loamy, and sandy loam soils. Sugarcane is also produced well in deep soils. Sugarcane production is not good at all in sandy and pubble containing soil. Sugarcane land should be high and flat. Low lying areas where water accumulates easily and drainage is not good are not suitable for sugarcane cultivation.
Suitable area for cultivation
Every district in Bangladesh has little amount of sugarcane cultivation, but the northern districts of the country are suitable for sugarcane cultivation due to the effects of climate. Therefore, it is seen that a lot of sugarcane is grown in Rajshahi, Rangpur, Dinajpur, Jessore, and Kushtia districts. Among the districts in the south-east- Faridpur, Dhaka, and Jamalpur have also seen good sugarcane cultivation.
Land preparation method
Sugarcane land has to be cultivated 3/4 times and prepared with a few laddering. The land does not need to be cultivated so finely / very finely. If the previous crop is sugarcane, the root of the crop should be removed from the land and thrown elsewhere. Since there is a need for the drainage system in sugarcane lands, it is convenient to cut drains for drainage if all the lands are constructed into 50 feet i.e. 15.1 meters wide and 100-200 feet i.e. 31-62 meters in length.
Seed selection and collection:
Sugarcane seeds are small pieces of sugarcane. It is better to collect seeds from sugarcane crop which is free from disease and insect infestation. It is better to collect seeds from the side of a sugarcane stalk, because the seed from the side of agar grows good seedlings. So in the previous days, farmers used to collect only one sapling or seed from the top of sugarcane In fact, all the sugarcane can be used as seeds except for the lower part. Therefore, in some countries of the world, the entire sugarcane is placed vertically in the drains and covered with soil.After selecting sugarcane from a field for seed, seeds are collected from there. Each sugarcane has to be cut into pieces with the help of a sharp knife. Each piece should have three eyes.
Sugarcane seeds need to be cleaned before planting it can germinate properly, protecting them from the attack of fungi and other germs without seeds. Otherwise, the seeds become infected with diseases like red rot, smut, rust, etc., germination is disrupted and the seedlings gradually wither. Among the medicines available for seed treatment are Eretan-6 and Egalal. Mix two ounces of Aretan-6 in half a liter of clean water and dip two cut seeds in it. The amount of Algal Adhas should be mixed well in 1 ounce-10 ounce of clean water. The seeds should be soaked in this mixed water for 5 minutes and planted in the ground. Nowadays the seeds are purified by a medicine called Eketa or Bavistin.
Seed sowing method: Sugarcane can be sown from Kartik-Agrahayan to Falgun-Chaitra. However, the first time is better. Seeds can be sown in a few ways in the drain or in the vat. Depending on the soil sap, seed condition, and quantity.
20-40 per acre i.e. 3.75-4.75 tons of seed per hectare If the distance from one ditch to another ditch is 1.25 m, 30,000 per hectare and if the distance is 1 m, 36,500 three-seeded seeds i.e. sugarcane pieces will be required. However, if the method of sowing seeds in the drain is different, the rate of seed will be slightly different Transplanted sugarcane cultivation requires much less seed than conventional methods, such as 1.8 tons of seed per hectare.
If it is seen that the seedlings are not germinating even after 10/15 days after sowing, it is better to give light irrigation.
Sugarcane farmers usually do not irrigate the sugarcane crop. But it is essential to irrigate the land for good yield. Sugarcane is a perennial crop, it stays in the field for about a year. Water is especially needed for the crop at least twice during this long period. The first time is during sowing and early growth of seedlings and the second time is in Kartik when the soil moisture decreases rapidly due to lack of rainfall.
Weed control and loosening of soil
Weeds can grow rapidly in Sugarcane growing fields. It needs to be destroyed in time. Weeds may need to be cleaned two to three times. With that, the soil of the drain has to be softened. After irrigation or rain, the sun can cause a hardcover on the surface of the soil around the drain. This hinders the growth of seedlings. In this situation, the soil has to be softened by breaking the hardcover with the help of a weeder.
Placement of soil at the base of the plant:
Giving soil at the base of sugarcane is essential. When the height of the seedlings is 2-3 feet( i.e. 70-80 cm) the soil should be applied for the first time. The soil that is deposited between the two rows is used to give the soil at the beginning. After applying urea and mustard oil cake, the work of giving soil at the beginning has to be done. If there is a companion crop in the sugarcane field, then the task of giving this soil has to be done only after harvesting that crop. The second time the soil is given at the beginning of the month of Ashar-Shravan.
This is the last time urea fertilizer is applied. As a result of the last deposition of soil, in the case of sugarcane, it can be seen that in the middle of the two rows, a drain has been created automatically at the place where the soil was raised and the land at the base of sugarcane has become quite high. Rainwater is easily drained in this trance and the roots of the trees are hardened so that they do not fall easily during storms.
If the sugarcane field is a little low or uneven, there is a possibility of waterlogging in the field during the monsoon. Excess water from rain or irrigation should be taken out by arranging drainage. Otherwise, the growth of sugarcane will be halted, various diseases will occur and the production of sugar and molasses will decrease.
Tender shoots come out in the sugarcane bush after some days. When mature sugarcane is harvested, tender shoots are young. That is, when immature shoots of sugarcane are cut and threshed together, it produces low-quality juice and sugar. Therefore, all the tender shoots that come out after 2/3 months should be cut off.
Insect and disease management:
Sugarcane stem borer Insects and Stem borer Insects:
Furadan 5g per hectare or Furata 5g per hectare should be applied for the first time in March and the second time in May.
Termites eat planted seedlings, so seedlings cannot grow. When attacked, the tree dries up. Sugarcane cultivation should be stopped for suppression. Jute traps have to be given including breaking the shelter place of the Termite and finding the queen. Vitashield / Lethal 20 EC can be applied.
Red rot disease:
A type of fungal disease. When are cut vertically, the inner cells show rotten pale red color in the stems of the affected sugarcane. For this, planting seeds need to be purified. Forstin 50 SP should be applied at 500 gm per hectare.
Rubber Production Technology:
Rubber is a lucrative agro-based industry. The importance of rubber in the daily needs of human beings and in the development of modern civilization is immense. About 47,000 products are currently being made from rubber in the world. As rubber plantations are a highly labor-intensive agro-industry, they are playing a vital role in alleviating poverty, improving living standards, and improving the socio-economic status of rural areas by creating massive employment opportunities for uneducated / semi-educated men and women in remote hilly areas of the country. The success of rubber cultivation depends on the climate, weather, and soil structure. Land at a height of 100-200 m above sea level is most suitable for natural rubber cultivation. Soil structure 35% mud and 30% sand ( i.e. sandy loam soil). soil needs to have more or fewer substances like nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, and manganese.
Pit preparation :
This work has to be completed as per the rules. It is important to keep in mind that small seedlings can easily emerge roots in soft soil. The pit should be kept open for 2 weeks. The filling of the pit will be done by the topsoil and care should be taken so that the hole is not left empty after filling. Pit size should be 2’x2’x2′.
Spacing and plant population are important factors for the yield of rubber. Different experts are emphasizing seeding plantations with proper spacing. Although some of them suggest to landscape design for better production. In flat land, the Rubber plants should be planted at 5m*5m spacing.
Climatic requirements :
2000 to 3000 mm average rainfall is necessary for rubber cultivation. Rubber is a sub-tropical crop so that 29-34 o C temperature is optimum for rubber production. It grows well in slightly acidic soil.
Rubber can be propagated through seed or budding. But Budding like pater budding, modified fortcurt budding give best results. Sometimes air layering can also give the desired seedling for propagation.
Fertilizer Application :
Per hectares, 350 kg fertilizer is required for Rubber plantation. The ratio of N, P & K should be 10: 10: 10 so the amount of each fertilizer should be 116 kg/ha. The fertilizer has to apply in two doses. The first dose of fertilizer should be given during the month of Ashar and Sravan and the second dose should be given during Ashwin -Kartik. Fertilizer should be given at a proper distance between two trees.
Weeding should be done properly a minimum of 4 years after plantation of the rubber tree. Because during this time the growth rate of rubber plants is high so they require nutrients and minerals. Presence of weed increase competition which retires the growth of rubber tree.
Though in rubber plant cultivation flood irrigation is not practiced but small pits are dug to conserve water. These pits are called silt pits. The size of each pit should be 4 * 1.5 * 2.5 feet. For one hectare of land 100-125 silt pit is required. Each of silt pit can contain 400 liters of water. That means annually 40,000 liters of water can be conserved by digging a silt pit. Which can increase the production of rubber up to 15-20%.
Cover crop :
The cover crop is necessary for the first four years of Rubber plantation. Mucona, pyorrhoea can be planted as a cover crops. Which can reduce soil erosion, reduce the growth of weeds and incorporate organic nitrogen in the soil. However, total production will increase.
A Rubber tree can give production up to 32 years. In the first 7 years of plantation, plants can’t produce quality latex. So actually farmer gets latex up to 25 years. Rubber is collected as latex. There are different techniques to collect latex from the Rubber trees. Tapping is one of them. In one year, tapping can be done up to 120 -130 days. Tapping cut is prepared half Spiral cut at 30o angle.